Manorath Paintings from Nathdwara

Manorath Paintings from Nathdwara

Manorath (mano = mind and rath = vehicle), also translated as ‘wish of the mind,’ records a special darshan sponsored by a Goswami of the Pushtimarg sect or a devotee for the pleasure of Shrinathji. Vallabhacharya’s teachings expound that one should dedicate one’s life, wealth, and all material possessions for the pleasure of Shrinathji and only then partake of it. Depicting a manorath performs the function of recording a punya karma (meritorious deed) and carrying it back as a memory to be shared with family and friends..

While early (traditional) manoraths were painted much like miniature paintings (Figure 1), the innovations of the early 20th century have been held as exemplars of modernity by art historians and collectors.



Figure 1

Traditional manorath painting depicting the Goswamis of Kankroli performing a manorath at Nathdwara.

c.1900, 11.5 x 8.75 in., gouache on paper, Aditya Ruia Collection, India.

In the 1900s, innovative (popular) manoraths were introduced to pilgrims as a fusion of technology and traditional painting. Employing a photographic aesthetic, they allowed for wider patronage and circulation among devotees. The devotees themselves were the patrons of these manoraths, thereby receiving grace (pushti) from Shrinathji.


Figure 2

Udairam Bhagwandas, Nathdwara 1925, 18 x 24 in.

Silver gelatin photo and watercolor, Aditya Ruia Collection, India.

Figure 2 is an example of the popular genre. The background of palaces signifies the home of Shrinathji in Vraja, while the water represents the river Yamuna. The flora around Shrinathji is the signifier of the vanas (forests) in which Krishna performed his lilas (divine play). In the middle ground, Shrinathji appears attended by Vallabhacharya and his son Vitthalnathji, while the foreground depicts the patron devotee and his family.

In a single visual, the artist has placed the devotee into the “mythopoetic” world of Shrinathji, conflating time with Krishna, the founders of the Pushtimarg, and himself.


Figure 3

Chitrakar Nainsukh Liladhar, Nathdwara 1920, 20 x 25 in. 

Silver gelatin photo and watercolor  Aditya Ruia Collection, India.

Figure 3 is another example of this popular genre where the locus has shifted to the temple’s interior, depicting Shrinathji in a bangla (pavilion). The display of this manorath places the devotee and his family in constant communion with their family deity.

Due to substantial demand by devotees to carry back a memory, artists in Nathdwara devised novel ways to meet their requirements of speed and accuracy.

Popular backgrounds were available in artists’ studios from which the devotee could choose, depending on the manorath he had sponsored or fancied himself being part of (Figure 2). Photographs of the devotee and his family were then taken by the artist or photo studio and printed on special matte paper, which enabled overpainting. The faces would then be cut from the photograph, finely scraped from the back, applied on the pre-selected background, and merged. Once done, the clothes and limbs and digits would be drawn, painted and prepared for the devotee to collect.

These allowed the patron or devotee to locate himself as part of the liturgical events, thereby giving him a greater sense of identity within the sampradaya.

Aditya Ruia

Scholar and Collector

Mumbai, India

Collection Highlight: Waswo X. Waswo

Collection Highlight: Waswo X. Waswo

Nathdwara Paintings as Poignant Objects

It has only been within the past six years that I have amassed a small but interesting collection of about one-hundred Indian miniatures. They vary from large and intricate to extremely small and simple, yet each has a meaningful place in my heart. I am not an academic, but an artist, so my criteria is always more visual than historical, and I admit that I tend to shun away from “perfectly preserved” pieces. The rough edges, tiny flakes of paint, and even the burn marks from incense sticks and the grime of oil lamps only adds to my appreciation. A few tiny holes caused by the gnawing of a cockroach? No problem. It is the history of these very vernacular acts of Indian normalcy that lend these works their charm. One can imagine them on humble altars in family “god rooms” that many Rajasthani homes maintain.

Prathan Milan from the Collection of Waswo X. Waswo

Take for example the Prathan Milan from the 1950s, which depicts Vallabhacharya after he had climbed Govardhan Hill to meet the Lord Shrinathji himself. This meeting is thought to have much significance among the devotees of the Pushti Marg, as Vallabhacharya is himself believed to be an incarnation of Krishna. The small amounts of grime and wrinkling on this painting does little to distract from its emotional meaning and spiritual power, brushed with simplicity and grace.

Bhil Raid after the Govardhan Puja, Shrinathji Mandir, Nathdwara, from about 1930.

Or take the ritualized Bhil Raid after the Govardhan Puja, Shrinathji Mandir, Nathdwara, from about 1930: the perfect complement to the Govardhan Puja painting which I collected first which is complete with a mountain of food offerings, and from around the same period. Once I had bought one, I knew I had to buy the other. Such is the way of a collector, as collecting is its own type of storytelling.

Shrinathji with Gosainji and Cows. Kotah School from around 1880

Shrinathji with Gosainji and Cows from the Kotah School from around 1880 depicts the essence of what we have come to know as the Pushti Marg tradition that makes Nathdwara such a blessed place in the hearts of all Rajasthani peoples and the Hindus in India. As small and worn as this work is, one can obviously feel the fact that it has seen the glow of many an incense stick and flickering diya. A small object of worship that once held pride of place in the God Room of a small haveli now finds a place in both my home and my heart. The much larger Gosainji’s Seven Sons (Nathdwara, late 19th century) is a masterwork of colour and composition, yet just who brushed this art to life we will probably never know.

Gosainji’s Seven Sons , late 19th century.

Miniature paintings hold hidden histories that extend well beyond what they actually depict. There are a myriad stories connected to each: of pigment grinders, brush makers, artists and clients, and families that passed them down from generation to generation. Such stories are hinted at in the imperfections and roughened conditions of the works, and it is as such that they become not just historical and sacred, but poignant objects.

Waswo X. Waswo
Artist and Collector, Udaipur

The Tradition of Wall Paintings and Nathdwara Artists

The Tradition of Wall Paintings and Nathdwara Artists

Wall paintings on the exterior of a home in Chitrakaron ki gali, Nathdwara.

The history of wall painting is an essential and time–honored tradition for the artists of Nathdwara. Dating back to at least the early 18 century, these wall paintings, murals, and frescoes are created both as commissioned works and as part of the artist’s seva (loving devotion) by the direct descendants of the artists who came with Shrinathji to Nathdwara in the 17th century, as well as the later communities of artists who came and settled here in the 19th century.  Made both in and outside the limits of Nathdwara, these beautiful wall paintings are omnipresent, covering the interiors and exteriors of temples, homes (including the artist enclave of Chitrakaron ki gali), public spaces, and the most significant repository which can be found in and around the Shrinathji temple. In this blog, I will briefly discuss two notable pre-20th century examples of wall painting as well as two ongoing traditions within the art form.

Procession of Dauji II, c. 1815-1826. Mobegarh Akhada, Nathdwara.

In Nathdwara, frescos dating back to the early 19th century cover the interior and exterior of the Mobegarh Akhada. This structure, located on the edge of town, contains a small shrine to Shrinathji and is currently occupied as a residence. Sadly several wall paintings here have been damaged by construction or, even more alarmingly, whitewashed. Several of the remaining paintings are remarkably well preserved, considering their age. Subjects featured include Vaishnava symbolism and historical events, including a nearly life-sized image of Shrinathji, a joyful raas lila, and a dramatic procession featuring tilkayat Damodarji II, popularly called Dauji Maharaj, riding an elephant and surrounded by his cavalry.

Raas Lila, early 20th century. Juna Mahal, Dungarpur.

Perhaps one of the most significant commissions of wall paintings by Nathdwara artists can be found at Juna Mahal in Dungarpur. Located approximately 150 kilometers south of Nathdwara, the former kingdom of Dungarpur was ruled by a Sisodia branch of the Mewar royal family. The seven-storey palace is replete with stunning frescoes and shimmering rooms of cut-glass inlay work. Subjects represented here are plentiful and include traditional Vaishnava imagery, battle scenes, mythological figures, and erotic imagery. The likeness of Surya, the Sun god, is peppered liberally throughout as the official emblem of the Sisodia dynasty who are purported to be descended from the Sun. Two exceptionally well-preserved frescoes include a large-scale raas lila and a durbar scene from a Gangaur festival painted in the early 20th century by the adi gaur Nathdwara artist Kanhaiyalal.

Kanhaiyalal. Ganguar festival durbar scene, 1939-46. Juna Mahal, Dungarpur.

The current artists of Nathdwara have fastidiously continued the wall painting tradition, following in their ancestor’s footsteps. Between Dussehra and Diwali, the artists of Nathdwara gather under the guidance of the painting mukhiyaji, Parmanand Sharma, to repaint the entire temple of Shrinathji at Nathdwara. Old and young, from the most famous to those just starting out, gather to perform their personal seva. It is regarded as a significant honor for their entire family to have the opportunity to be able to perform this annual seva for every artist of Nathdwara. The artists collectively repaint all the wall paintings that grace the temple and other adjacent buildings. This task is finished before Diwali, so the temple looks refreshed for the start of the Hindu new year.

Refreshing the wall paintings at the Shrinathji Temple, 2022.

Image courtesy of Goswami Chi. 105 Shri Vishal Bawa.

Another tradition that occurs each year immediately following Gopashtami and Annakut is painting murals at the Nathdwara goshala (cowshed). Following the festivals’ dramatic processions of intricately embellished cows and ceremonious govardhan puja at the Shrinathji temple, the cows are led back to the goshala where they reside. Here, playful, yet majestic images are painted as a homage to these revered animals, their home, and their deeply-rooted position in Nathdwara’s history. Beneath, we see a recently completed wall painting by the renowned artist Raghunandan Sharma and his nephew, Suresh Sharma. 


Wall paintings at the Nathdwara goshala,November 2022.

Artwork by Raghunandan Sharma and Suresh V. Sharma.

The practice of wall painting in Nathdwara contributes a crucial component of tradition, community, and beauty which operate in tandem to preserve these salient tenets of Nathdwara’s heritage. These types of traditions allow the artists of Nathdwara to venerate Shrinathji, honor their ancestors, and preserve the culture and their collective legacies for generations to come.

Aleksandra Matic

Fulbright-Nehru Fellow, 2022-2023

Shringara of Shrinathji: A Family Collection of Miniature Nathdwara Masterpieces

Shringara of Shrinathji: A Family Collection of Miniature Nathdwara Masterpieces

On 10 February 2022,, three experts convened to celebrate the launch of Delhi–based designer Vikram Goyal’s recent publication, Shringara of Shrinathji. The book (with text by Pushtimarg scholar and artist Amit Ambalal) is a resplendent compilation of miniature paintings gifted to Goyal’s ancestor Mehta Sahab Pannalalji, then prime minister of the princely state of Mewar, around the turn of the 20th century.

According to Ambalal, the collection (reproduced in rich color and full scale) was commissioned by the Tilkayat (sectarian leader), head of the Nathdwara temple, Govardhanlalji (1862–1934), and executed by famed chief temple artist, Sukhdev Kishandas (1853–1925). The paintings would have been given to Pannalalji in appreciation of the family’s devotion to Shrinathji and generosity to the temple town at large.

The three speakers—Goyal, Sharan Apparao, founder of Chennai-based Apparao Galleries and organizer of the discussion for TAP India, and Dr. Madhuvanti Ghose, Alsdorf Associate Curator of Indian, Southeast Asian, and Himalayan Art at the Art Institute of Chicago—explored the increasingly blurred lines between traditional and contemporary and art and craft, emphasizing the importance of establishing artists’ identity and authorship.

Shringara of Shrinathji: From the Collection of the Late Gokal Lal Mehta

by Amit Ambalal. Conceptualised by Vikram Goyal. Ahmedabad: Mapin, 2021.

According to Goyal, one of the most remarkable things about the collection of paintings in Shringara of Shrinathji is the modernity displayed in these devotional paintings. We must keep in mind, he explained, that the works were completed over a century ago, when such elements would not have yet have been recognized as modern at all. He highlighted geometric prints in the backgrounds—stripes and squares, a herringbone pattern, and the stark minimalism of black and silver monochrome paintings.


Left: Shravana Krishna 9th Shringara dedicated to Tilkayat Govindji (1729–1774) with a Laheriya (tie-dye) Pichvai backdrop.

Right: Ruperi (silver) ghata painting of Pausha, Krishna 4th with Shringari Goswami Damodarlalji (1897–1936) with a Silver Pichvai at the back. Collection of the Late Gokal Lal Mehta.

Apparao then showcased a few artists who have similarly fused traditional Pushtimarg elements, especially related to pichvais, with contemporary painting. Several artists originally from Nathdwara re featured here. Lalit Sharma’s large canvases use architecture to create an air of grandeur, while his son Kapil Sharma’s magnifications of Shrinathji imbue his works with drama and intrigue.


Left: Shrinathji by Lalit Sharma. 3 x 4 ft. Oil on canvas. 2015.

Right: Omnipresent by Kapil Sharma. 30 x 30 inches, 2015. Digital print on Hahnemühle fine art archival paper (edition of 3).

Goyal, too, has incorporated characteristics of pichvais into his art. Motifs like lotuses and peacocks feature heavily in his early work. His recent work includes collaborating with metal artisans to mimic the pichvai design through the medium of brass. (Note the lapis lazuli rendition of Shrinathji here.)

Nathdwara Wall Panel by Viya Home by Vikram Goyal. 60 x 120 in. Brass with lapis lazuli inlay.

When Goyal’s work blends the visual elements of the Pushtimarg aesthetic with design, he exemplifies a broader trend of art and craft converging. Goyal is renowned on the global stage already, but even on a local level, artisans can be seen crossing over into the classification of “artist,” noted Apparao. The Indian government’s recognition of “master craftsman” on some is discernably a step forward. Ultimately, more patronage of the artists, including representation in galleries worldwide, is needed.

The concept of “craft” calls to mind something both utilitarian and transactional, contrasting with the comparatively elevated status of “art,” where the artist’s identity plays a critical role in determining value. The idea of authorship was a key motivation behind establishing the Artists of Nathdwara collective, so Apparao’s sentiment resonates strongly.

As the panel concluded, Ghose mentioned that many of the Artists of Nathdwara also have extensive family collections, passed down through generations alongside secrets of the trade. Several affiliates of the Artists of Nathdwara are leading efforts to make these extraordinary family archives available to the public.

Remy Dhingra
Yale University, Class of 2020
Boston, MA

A Day at Nathdwara

A Day at Nathdwara

Everything about Nathdwara fascinates me.  This quaint little town near Udaipur has all it takes to capture my imagination.  Seeming chaos is what welcomed me as I entered the town for the first time as a kid.  But over the years, as I rambled along the narrow sinuous streets, without trying to decipher its randomness, the magic began to unveil.

This temple town initially comes across as a place bustling with people, forever abuzz with activity. But then, as I wandered around exploring it, I experienced a strange feeling of stillness – almost timelessness – about it.  I was struck by this duality and it eventually became bit of a challenge to depict it through photography, more so because I’ve had no formal training in the medium.

Another interesting aspect of the place is the panache with which its people use an array of strong, vibrant, and contrasting colours.  All around the town, the walls of houses and temples are decorated with inconspicuous frescos & religious graffiti. Their tacit presence, combined with the town’s distinct architectural idiom, successfully creates a tactile, dynamic, and touching visual experience. And it is the ease and playfulness, with which the people have derived such high aesthetics, that never fails to amaze me.

Wall Painting 5

In 2008 I started taking photographs of the town with an intention to document it and capture the nuances that form the core of the Nathdwara aesthetics. This series is an attempt to relive that visual experience.

Anuj Ambalal

Nathdwara and the Pushtimarg

Nathdwara and the Pushtimarg

The bustling temple town of Nathdwara in Rajasthan nestles in the Aravalli Hills about forty–five kilometers from the city of Udaipur today. It has grown around the haveli of Shrinathji, the principal sectarian image for the Pushtimarg that was brought here in 1672. Instead of a traditional Hindu temple with its characteristic tower over the sanctum, Shrinathji is housed in a haveli—a mansion, modeled on the homes of contemporary Rajasthani merchants and kings, that was meant to recall the residence of Krishna’s foster father in Vraj. In time it became the elaborate complex that we see today which is regularly whitewashed and adorned with fresh wall paintings by the artists of Nathdwara every year around Diwali.

The Vallabha sampradaya (sect) was founded by Vallabhacharya (1479–1531), a Brahmin from the Andhra region of southern India who formulated the philosophy of shuddhadvaita (pure nondualism), which became the basis for the Pushtimarg or the Path of Grace.

NATHDWARA AND THE PUSHTIMARGVitthalnathji and Vallabhacharya, Nathdwara, Rajasthan, India.

Mid 19th century. Opaque watercolor on paper. 25.2 x 34.3 cm.

Amit Ambalal Collection, India.

During his first pilgrimage to the north, he went to Gokul, which was identified as the place where Krishna, the eighth incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, grew up and was associated with his childhood lilas (sportive pranks). By the late fifteenth and the early part of the sixteenth century, a very powerful devotional movement had developed around Krishna and some of the sacred sites associated with his early life in Vraj around the banks of the river Yamuna where he had grazed his cattle. Krishna is said to have appeared before Vallabhacharya and commanded him to go to Mount Govardhan, where he discovered the svarup of Shri Govardhananathji, which came in time to be known as Shrinathji to his followers and remains their principle devotional image to this day.

This sculptural image, which is regarded by the followers of Vallabhacharya as the living image of Krishna—his svarup—shows an aspect of the deity as a seven-year-old boy, lifting Mount Govardhan above his head with his left arm while holding his right hand by his waist.

NATHDWARA AND THE PUSHTIMARGTilkayat Damodarji II Performing Arati on Sharad Purnima,

Nathdwara, Rajasthan, India. First quarter of the 19th century.

Opaque watercolor heightened with gold on paper.

25.1 x 34.8 cm. Amit Ambalal Collection, India.

It refers to the miraculous feat in which Krishna lifted the mountain on the little finger of his left hand to shelter the villagers from the storms sent by the king of the gods, Indra. Vallabhacharya had a small shrine erected over the svarup and prescribed a simple seva (devotional service) in his honor. Vallabhacharya was eventually succeeded by his younger son, Vitthalnathji (1516–1586), who developed an imaginative seva that informs the Pushtimarg approach to veneration even today. Vitthalnathji nurtured important connections with Mughal rulers and succeeded in securing some significant grants for the sect, including rights over Gokul, from the Mughal emperor Akbar (r. 1556–1605). The regal splendor that he introduced into the veneration of Shrinathji was greatly influenced by the aesthetics and etiquette of the Mughal court.

Vallabhacharya developed the basics of the seva that the sect followed, dividing the day into eight darshans, periods when the worshippers could view Shrinathji but it was Vitthalnathji who created a much more elaborate seva around the veneration of Shrinathji. A great deal of attention was paid to the shringara of Shrinathji, which came to emphasize raga (music and poetry), bhoga (food offerings), and shringara (adornment) that were varied for every daily darshan. According to tradition, Vitthalnathji brought together the ashtachhapa (group of eight) poets, who composed verses for Shrinathji with rich new imagery that influenced all the arts, including painting and pichvais; these padas continue to be sung today. Floral decorations, costume, jewelry, wall hangings and pichvais, which served as backdrops to the svarup, were also important elements. The sect developed such elaborate traditions in these areas that one cannot help but be impacted aesthetically when, as a worshipper, one catches a fleeting glimpse of Shrinathji in the midst of the teeming crowds that come to see him daily. All eight darshans are planned with keen attention to the season, the time of day, and the mood of the deity. The temples in Nathdwara and elsewhere also celebrate special festivals throughout the year; these are staged with yet more fanfare, and elaborate settings are created daily. Shrinathji is adorned differently on each occasion, with regulations dictating how he will be dressed every day and what accouterments and amusing playthings will be laid out before him.

One can get a rare glimpse into this cloistered world when one glances at the pichvais and miniature paintings produced by and for the sect.

Amit Ambalal Kamalan ki Pichvai

Nathdwara, Rajasthan, India. Early 20th century

Cotton, painted with pigments 178 x 154.4 cm
Amit Ambalal Collection, India.

The artists of Nathdwara have captured each occasion right down to the last detail, recording the precise ornamentation of Shrinathji. It is worth keeping in mind that this entire visual culture is a product of the discerning taste of a succession of tilkayats, maharajas, and goswamis, or descendants of Vallabharcharya over the last four hundred years.

The visual and performing arts are still a part of daily life in Nathdwara. These traditions have been nurtured for the last few centuries by the intimate, mutually beneficial relationship between the temple, its wealthy patrons, and its pilgrims, who come from all walks of life. However, old patterns of patronage are no longer relevant in today’s rapidly changing Nathdwara. The arts—whether miniature painting, pichvai painting, or other crafts that still survive in the lanes around the temple—need new patrons if they are to continue. As the Pushtimarg rapidly spreads around the world, I hope that new patrons step forward and ensure that the artistic traditions that have made the Vallabha sampradaya so unique, are able to flourish and grow.


Dr. Madhuvanti Ghose
Alsdorf Associate Curator of Indian, Southeast Asian and Himalayan Art
The Art Institute of Chicago, USA
Curator of the exhibition, The Gates of the Lord: The Tradition of Krishna Paintings (2015/16)

The Artists of Nathdwara

The Artists of Nathdwara

Nathdwara is famed not just for its temple, but also for the small group of traditional artists who arrived there in the seventeenth century along with Shrinathji (an aspect of Krishna), the principal image for the Pushtimarg sect. Nathdwara and its artists are unique, even in a place like India which has seen the survival of many artistic traditions from the past. Rich artistic practices developed around the veneration of Shrinathji and the other svarups (living images) of the sect between the sixteenth century and today, with the use, for example, of the beautiful cloth paintings known as pichvais being developed there. Even today, the hereditary artists of Nathdwara led by their head (the mukhiya) perform seva (devotional service) for Shrinathji by adorning the walls of the entire temple complex with fresh wall paintings at the time of Diwali; and they still make the pichvais for which the town was once so famous.

 Parmanand Sharma, the present mukhiya, or head artist, of the

temple of Shrinathji in Nathdwara. Photo courtesy: Anuj Ambalal

The artists who accompanied Shrinathji to Nathdwara in the seventeenth century and settled near the temple were very responsive to the tastes of their different patrons, whether tilkayats (head of the sect) or kings. They were also sensitive to the artistic winds that blew their way, whether from Mewar itself, in which kingdom Nathdwara was located, or from nearby princely states such as Kotah and Kishangarh, whose rulers were devout followers of the Pushtimarg. By the nineteenth century, a distinctive Nathdwara style had emerged that was characterized by dreamy-eyed cows and human figures with full bodies, bell-shaped skirts, and large, almond-shaped eyes.



Pichvai for Sharad Purnima, Nathdwara,

Rajasthan, India. 19th century. Cotton,

painted with pigments. 193 x 155 cm.

TAPI Collection (T99.1801), Surat, India.

The artists of Nathdwara did not forget how to paint in the style of Kotah or Kishangarh, which they can do even today; indeed, they could turn their hands to anything their patrons wanted.

It is important to remember why these paintings were created. Within the Pushtimarg, there is an ancient and important tradition known as chitra seva, in which devotees could venerate painted representations of the actual svarups. Paintings also served as accurate records of a particular darshan, operating as reminders of important religious experiences for the people who commissioned them. Finally, there were large pichvais that were usually made to adorn the back wall of a sanctum, behind the deity. Artists and patrons could not paint what they wished. The tilkayat or the goswami in charge of the temple would have decided what could be depicted, and they usually followed traditional prototypes.

Nathdwara’s distinctive style flourished during the nineteenth century, and by the time of Tilkayat Govardhanlalji (1862–1934), it had evolved further thanks to the arrival of European prints, Victorian postcards and photography, and the availability of new pigments. The town’s artists were masters at taking these diverse influences and making them their own. Some of the most important included Sukhdev (1853–1925), Narayan (1860–1932/33),Ghasiram (1869–1931) and Champalal (c. 1875–1930). In their heyday under Govardhanlalji, these men proudly proclaimed their status and expertise, signing their names as chitrakars, or artists. At that time, Nathdwara not only absorbed aesthetic influence but exported it as well, and its artists took on work in nearby areas including Udaipur, Kotah, Jhalawar, and Dungarpur. They were also in great demand in the various havelis of the Pushtimarg across western India while wealthy patrons also commissioned works.

Of all the artists of Nathdwara, no one was able to create the same impact with their distinctive style as Narottam Narayan Sharma (1896–1990) during the 20th century. Indeed, Narottam’s style was so successful that it is imitated in the bazaars of Nathdwara to this day and has come to define the town’s art since the 1950’s. Individuals such as the National Award winning Revashankar Sharma (1935–2016) were capable of working in any school of Indian painting, responding to the dictates of the market and the desires of foreign visitors and nonresident Indians. He was deeply admired for his lyrical depictions of Krishna and Radha in his paintings.

Nathdwara continues to shape the work of generations of Indian artists. Perhaps its biggest impact has been on Amit Ambalal (b. 1943), who in turn has influenced many other renowned artists. Originally, he was searching for an imagery of his own that was nevertheless rooted in tradition, and Nathdwara was the source of his inspiration. When he first started to study and collect works from Nathdwara, they were not yet recognized as a legitimate genre within Indian art history. Ambalal, in turn, opened the doors of Nathdwara to an entire generation of Indian artists. The aesthetics of the popular Nathdwara idiom certainly appealed to Bhupen Khakhar(1934–2003), who was not only moved to create works but also turned into an avid collector of Nathdwara paintings. So did A. A. Ramachandran (b. 1935), whose own works seem to reflect their aesthetics. Nilima Sheikh (b. 1945) received a fellowship to study with the hereditary artists in Nathdwara, and one can see the impact of pichvais and the traditional sanjhi stencils in her painted scrolls. Nathdwara and its visual traditions have also helped form the career of the English artist Desmond Lazaro, who trained in the pichvai tradition, and his recent work is a testament to the enduring legacy of the haveli of Shrinathji and of the artists of this temple town on generations of modern and contemporary artists.

And what of the artists of Nathdwara today? A new breed has emerged who have studied both within their family traditions as well as in art and design schools beyond the town.

  The artists of Nathdwara photographed in December 2014.

The bustling town of Nathdwara is undergoing rapid expansion today. The visual and performing arts which are still a part of daily life in Nathdwara are under incredible strain. It is important to have new patrons step forward and ensure that the artistic traditions that have made the Vallabha sampradaya so unique are able to flourish and grow as the Pushtimarg spreads rapidly across the world. With their help, Nathdwara’s artists will be able to draw upon the inventiveness and creativity that has helped them stay relevant for centuries. As Narottam Narayan used to say, jo samay ke saath rahega, vohi tikega (the person who will stay with the times, will survive).


Dr. Madhuvanti Ghose

Alsdorf Associate Curator of Indian, Southeast Asian and Himalayan Art

The Art Institute of Chicago, USA

Curator of the exhibition, The Gates of the Lord: The Tradition of Krishna Paintings (2015/16)

Golden Pichvais from the Deccan

Golden Pichvais from the Deccan

Seth Jagjeevandas and his descendants, and a few other Gujarati merchants settled in Hyderabad in the Deccan, began the tradition of an impressive artistic and religious patronage that has baffled art historians. The pichvais, richly patterned fabrics embellished with gold and silver, are distinct in their aesthetics and completely different from their painted counterparts from Rajasthan. They are known as the Deccani Golden and Kalamkari pichvais, created by Deccani and Hyderabadi artists. 


Golden pichvai from the Deccan, late 18th century, stenciled and painted with opaque colours and gold on deep indigo dyed cotton. 248 x 194 cm. TAPI Collection (T.99.1412), Surat. Photo courtesy: TAPI Collection.

The golden pichvais are like visual poetry expressing the bhava that the ashtachaap poets wrote of the love of the gopis (milkmaidens of Vraj) who were totally enchanted by Krishna. The tenth chapter of the Bhagavata Purana celebrates the bhakti of the gopis, symbolizing selfless loving devotion towards Krishna. It narrates how the melodious sound of Krishna playing the flute entranced the gopis, who left their homes, their duties, husbands and children in the middle of the night to heed to the call of the flute. Leaving everything behind, they rushed to meet their beloved in the groves of Vrindavan. 

The golden pichvais were used during the festival of Navratri. The madhurya bhava or the esoteric love of the milkmaids of Vraj forms the central theme of the Navratri festival, which expresses the Pushtimarg philosophy of Nav Vilas as proposed by Sri Harirayji (1591–1716), great grandson of Sri Vithalnathji. Sri Harirayji conceived the Nav Vilas, which emphasizes the emotion of the main nine gopis, who symbolize the nine shaktis or powers of prakriti (nature). Pushtimarg devotees celebrate the bhava or emotion of the gopis for Krishna during Navratri.

According to the conception of Nav Vilas, Krishna calls the gopis by playing his fluteon the nights of Navratri to meet Him in nikunj, a heavenly grove in the forest of Vrindavan. Heeding the call of the flute, the gopis rush to meet Krishna expressing an unconventional and unconditional love for Krishna. Eight main sakhis or gopis are invited by Krishna on the first eight days; on the ninth day of Navratri, Krishna invites Sri Radha to the forest of  Vrindavan.

The defining feature of the Deccani pichvais is its opulent use of gold and silver foil on mainly red or black muslin or silk cloth. In the making of these golden pichvais the artist uses stencils to trace the gopis and trees onto the cloth; then the designated area is covered with a glue made from tamarind seeds and the gold foil is applied on it. The gold foil after being stuck in the desired area is further embellished with painted floral motifs or patterns. These golden foil embossed pichvais with gopis as the main theme were used during the Navratri festival in the personal house shrines of the Gujarati merchants settled in Karwan Sahu, in Hyderabad and also in the temples of the gurus that they patronized. 

By Dr. Anita Bharat Shah, Hyderabad, India


Painted Pichvais

Painted Pichvais


Pichvai for Gopashtami, Nathdwara,

Rajasthan, India. Late 20th century.

Attributed to Dwarkalal Sharma. Cotton,

painted with pigments, silver and gold. 

146 cm. x 101 cm.

TAPI Collection (T.06.98), Surat, India.

Vibrantly painted cloth hangings known as pichvais adorn the rear walls of the Vallabha sampraday shrines. They hang behind (peechhe) the various svarups (forms) of Krishna worshipped by the sect hence the term pichvaiEven though the painted hanging resembles a theatrical curtain and is most probably derived from that ancient form it is more than a decorative backdrop. It is an integral part of a highly developed seva (service) creating the mood or bhaav of the occasion. The painted pichvai with its bold, vivid composition may recreate Krishna’s lilas (sports) or capture the reverence of an historic event.

Nearly every day in Nathdwara is a cause for celebration. The liturgical calendar is jam-packed with festivals for the living child god Shrinathji. The pichvai is a large part of what defines and enlivens the occasion. In the Shrinathji mandir the hanging is in the form of an inverted U with an opening for the life-sized child Shrinathji. In other temples and private shrines, the pichvai is an unperforated rectangle of cloth.

Literary sources record the use of pichvais in Vraj before Shrinathji was transferred to Nathdwara in 1671, but it is uncertain when the first figural pichvai appeared. However, once in Rajasthan, the painted form flourished. Three hundred and fifty years later, painted pichvais continue to be produced by a select number of artists in Nathdwara who, with Krishna permeating their thoughts and guiding their brushes, specialize in the art of pichvai painting.

The painted works are hung during the warmer months. In the broiling heat of summer, the dominant themes are representations of lush greenery, shady caves, sparkling pools, and blooming lotuses rising from the cool waters of the river Yamuna. These refreshing scenes contribute to Shrinathji’s comfort when the outside temperatures soar.


Pichvai for Ban Yatra, Nathdwara,

Rajasthan, India. Late 19th century. Cotton,

painted with pigments and gold. 256 x 325 cm.

TAPI Collection (T.06.97), Surat, India.

The major festivals on which painted pichvais are displayed are Thakurani Teej, Daan Ekadashi, Sharad PurnimaGopashtami, Kunj Ekadashi and Ban Yatra. Except for the Kunj Ekadashi pichvai which is created during the ceremony, the others are figural, storytelling backdrops that heighten the bhaav (mood) of the occasion. Painted pichvais never appear in the winter season nor do they adorn the shrine on Annakut, the anniversary of Shrinathji’s raising of Mt. Govardhan, nor Janmashtami, Krishna’s birthday. Although the depiction of the Annakut Utsav with the sat svarup(seven forms) is a popular subject for painted pichvais, the hanging used on Annakut at Nathdwara is the heavily jeweled work that appears behind the svarups in the painted version.

Pichvai for Annakut, Nathdwara,

Rajasthan, India.  Mid-19th century. Cotton,

painted with pigments, gold and silver, 98 x72 cm.

TAPI Collection (T. 99. 556), Surat, India.

In addition to the festival pichvais, there are painted works sponsored by the tilkayat (hereditary leader of the sect) to record historic occasions such as his personal offering of aarti to Shrinathji or the gathering of the svarups. These usually include portraits of the priestly community who were present for the event. In this way the presiding tilkayat can make his mark on the liturgical calendar for these celebrations become part of the annual festival list.

By Kay Talwar
Independent scholar and author