‘Pitchhwai’ – the traditional temple hangings of Nathdwara
                                                                                    - Dr. Bijoy Kumar Dutta
“Those who are resolute on religion are secured by God.” On the land of Mewar, this has been the pious saying. Situated in the western part of India, Mewar acquires a large portion of Rajasthan. To the north of Mewar, about 30 miles away from Udaipur,  Nathdwara is situated at the bank of river Banas. It is a big centre of pilgrimage for Vishnav devotees and is also a pilgrimage of art. Nathdwara is the ‘Pradhan Peetha’ or key center for the followers of Vallabha  Sampradaya.1  Shrinathji is an anthropomorphic form of Hindu god Krishna, manifest as a seven-year-old child (Balak).2 The principal shrine of Shrinathji is situated at the temple town of Nathdwara. Shrinathji is the central presiding deity of the Vaishnava sect known as the Pushti Marg (The Path of grace) or the Vallabh Sampradaya or Shuddhadvaita, established by Shri Vallabhacharya. Shrinathji is worshiped mainly by the followers of Bhakti Yoga and the Vaishnava in Gujrat and Rajasthan,3 among others. Vitthalnathji, son of Vallabhacharya institutionalized the worship of Shrinathji at Nathdwara.4 On account of the popularity of Shrinathji, Nathdwara town itself is referred as ‘Shrinathji’.5 Initially the child Krishna deity was referred to as Devdamana (The conqueror of Gods – Referring to overpowering of Indra the king of swarga, heaven by Krishna in the lifting of Govardhan hill myth).6 Shri Vallabhacharya named him as Gopala and the place of worship as ‘Gopalpur’. Later, Vitthalnathji named the deity as Shrinathji.
Origin of the Vallabh Sampradaya
The Origin of Vallabh Sampradaya is known to be in the midst of the 16th century. Vallabhacharya, the founder of this sect, spread this religion and devotion (bhakti) to Lord Krishna throughout northern India, especially in Brajamandal. The father of Vallabhacharya, Laxman Bhatt was an intellectual person and was supposed to be the incarnation of Akshar Bhramashesh.7 Vallabhcharya was greatly influenced by the religious rituals of his father, and at the early age of 13 years only, he accomplished the task of studying the Veda, Vedanga, purana and other religious books.8 At the onset, Laxman Bhatt undertook teaching veda to Vallabhacharya at home only. But looking to his intellectual capability, he was sent to Swami Madhwananda on the Ashada Sudi 2 pushyark Yoga for further studies. In a short span of four months, he astonished everybody by his profound study of the four Vedas and six Shastras.9 In his youth, he went on a tour to the whole country. In the court of Raja Krishandev Rai of southern India, he argued intensely on shashtras in an assembly comprised of learned Pandits and overruled the Mayavad of Shankar. He was honored by the king and was offered the seat (Gaddi) of Vishnuswami and later he succeeded Acharya Vishnuswami who was the founder of Vishnuswami sampradaya (13th century).10 Vallabhcharya created lot of faith and confidence among the Hindus in vaishnav literature and vaishnav religion. Apart from Brajmandal this sampradya also flourished in Gujrat and Rajputana.
The Concept
The philosophical ideas of Vallabhcharya are known as ‘Shuddhadwetavad’, and the path that was shown by him is called Pushti Marg or the path of Grace. The main objective of Pushti Marg is to charm and glorify Lord Krishna (Krishan Kanhaiya). Here Shrinathji is worshiped as a symbol of Lord Krishna.11 Vallabhacharya established Pushti Sampradaya (sect) in a different aspect from the Maryada Marg of his former acharyas. The article in the pushti margiya granth ‘Sampradaya Pradeep’ certifies this fact. The following is an extract from the granth:
In other Sampradayas (Ramanuj etc.) the panchratra narad etc. propagate a system of formulated worship. All though in the Vishnuswami Sampradaya, the devotion that was established was a self-requesting type, yet it is also the path of dignity. It is desired of Vallabhacharaya that he may propound, execute and enlighten the path of devotion and self respect. Presently the devotees are being off tracked by the principles shown by Shankar. Therefore the blessings of Vallabhacharaya are essentially sought for. In the 4th Shloka of the 10th chapter, 2nd volume of Bhagwat, special reference has been made of Pushthi or the nourishment. In the self-conserved universe, the benevolence showered on the devotees by the Almighty, is nourishment of soul- Pushthi. It is the concept of Pushti Marg, that when the devotees totally depend upon God, abandon all their wills on Him and surrenders his total self, then the Almighty showers His blessings and lighten up their souls with his lilas. Achievement of this nitya-lila-swaroop is the final goal of Pushti Marg. The abolition of all worldly pleasures and sorrows and the tendency to adore and love Lord Krishna, Vallabhacharaya emphasized on ‘Serving’. He considers all three- Work (karma), Knowledge (Gyan) and devotion (Bhakti). He regards and renders great importance to Bhakti.  According to him the pundits and karm-kandi (those who toil) persons only get heaven, scholars only achieve akshar-bhrama but an ardent devotee attains purna purooshottam, the supreme power and becomes immortal with the supreme and eternal power.
Specifically refers to the narrative in the Bhagavata Purana wherein Krishna lifts Govardhan hill to protect the inhabitants of Vrindavan from a downpour of rain sent by Indra, The King of Devas, Gods. The most ancient description of Shrinathji appears in the Giriraj-khanda of the garga Samhita, wherein the deity has been referred to as Devadaman Shrinathji.12
Shri Nathji is said to have appeared at Mount Govardhan near Mathura. Vallabhacharyaji established the ‘paat’ in 1520 century and started daily worship (seva). Since that day the service or seva of Prabhu the Lord continued to be performed on Mount Govardhan. Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, on 9th October and twelfth year of his reign, ordered the demolishment of the ‘paat’. He ordered his Subedar, Abdul Nabi, to go to Mathura and destroy the ‘But-khana’ (the place of idol worship) of Katra, that is supposed by the idol worshippers as their place of worship (Kaba).7 In compliance to this order, many temples in the whole of India were demolished.  Situated on Mount Govardhan, the main temple of the Vallabha Sect, the temple of Shrinath ji also faced the dread of demolition. Goswami Damodar ji and his uncle Govind ji, Balkrishna ji and Ganga Bai left for Mathura, taking along the idol of Shrinathji, on October 10th 1669.8 Many emperors and kings refused to give protection to Shrinathji due to fear of Aurangzeb and Moghals.  At last, Rana Raj Singh of Mewar fortunately accepted ‘Shrinathji’ in a very magnificent way. On 10 February 1672, the ‘paat’ of Shrinath ji was established in ‘Singad’ village, presently known as Nathdwara.9
With Shrinathji, some devotee artists of the nearby places of the mount Govardhan, came to Nathdawara and started to paint the divine form of separation (vigrah) Shrinathji.10 The art style of Nathdwara, reached the other of areas of Mewar also. Udaipur became the most significant center of this art.11 The city of Nathdwara has been known as an art city, along with its recognition as a religious destination, since last two hundred and eighty years. The devotees, who indulged in the decoration of Shrinath ji, began painting the image of the Lord in the traditional style. The divine picture of Shrinath ji had a great influence on the devotees and so the demand of these paintings increased considerably. The demand of paintings attracted a large number of renowned artists from Jaipur, Udaipur, Marwar and Pali areas to settle down in Nathdwara and with their artistic abilities began painting the form of Shrinath ji. Thus a new style of painting came into being which continued to flourish as ‘Nathdawara style of paintings.’ The famous art historian, A. Coomarswami, in the year 1926, stated Nathdawara style of paintings as a key style of painting of Mewar. In those times, the paintings prepared by the Nathdwara artists were distributed to the travelers and the followers of Vaishnav Sampradaya and the followers of Vallabhacharya in the whole Rajasthan and Gujrat.12
The ‘seva’ and celebrations
                The most eminent exponent of Vallabha Sect, Shri Harirai has written about Pushti Marg: ‘….the attainment of the form of Lord Krishna itself is both the contemplation and the achievement of the Almighty, and this is known as Pushti Marg.’ In the 4th shloka of the 10th chapter of the 2nd volume of Shrimad Bhagwat, the Pushthi Poshan has been analyzed. The creatures on earth get nourishment and flourish (poshan) by the grace of the Almighty. On the basis of this shloka only, Vallabhacharya ji has termed the sect propounded by him, as the Pushthi Marg. This sect does not permit meditation for the attainment of personal desires and yearnings. It does not propound worship (puja) and deeds (karma kand). The sect considers devotion of God through Service (seva) only. 13
In the Pushti Marg, the seva of Lord Krishna is divided in two parts:
Activity service or kriyatmak seva  2. Emotional Service or bhavnatmak seva
Activity service can be undertaken in two types –
“Vittija” to serve in a financial way. This includes the construction of the temple, providing financial assistance to ensemble the material for decorating the temple and other donations.
“Tanuja” to serve with body, i.e. doing service with hands. This includes cleaning the temple, stitching the dress of the idol of the Lord (thakurji), bathing the idol, decorating the idol of the Lord, (shrinagar), decorating the floor (rangoli), pitchwai paintings, wall paintings and wall hangings etc.
Emotional service is spiritual service. This intellectual service is undertaken through the heart (Mana), speech (Vachana) and deeds (Karma). The devotee surrenders himself or herself completely to the Lord Krishna. He finds himself totally engrossed in the ‘lilas’ of Krishna.
This is the Pushti - Pushta mansi seva. This type of service is performed in two ways:
Daily Service: From early morning till the time of siesta, the devotee remains in the service of the Lord. This comprises of eight parts – Mangla, Shrinagar, Gwal, Rajbhog, Utthapan, Sandhya, Bhog aarti and Shayana.
Yearly Celebrations: In Yearly seva the festivities of six seasons are undertaken. Some important festivals are celebrated at an enormous dimension. These are Janmashtami, Annakoot, Goverdhan pooja, Dol, Nandotsav, Maharaas, Akshya Tritiya etc.
Service of the Lord (Thakurji)
The Pushti Margiya service comprises of three main parts. These are the Raga, Bhog and Shringaar Seva. According to Acharya Shri Vallabhacharya, every human being is captivated by the worldly pleasures. In order to get rid of these worldly evils, he suggests the service of God through these three seva methods and gets engulfed in the total devotion of Lord Krishna.14
In the Raga Seva, thakurji is served by songs which practice is still persisting. With the advent of Lord Govardhan nath on this earth, his eight associates also came into being. All the eight together sang in praise of Lord Krishna describing the different Lila’s performed by Him from time to time. These eight friends were Kumbhandas, Surdas, Krishnadas, Parmanand Das, Govind das, Chit Swami, Chaturbhuj das and Nanda das.15
Bhog sewa is an incessant process which begins with the waking up (Mangala aarti) and continues till the nap time (Shayan) of the Lord Krishna.
Shringaar is also a major part of the Lord’s routine. The Lord and the ambiance of his abode are decorated differently at different times of the day.
Decorating the temple with paintings of the Lord Krishna again comprises of an equally important aspect. These are the pitchwai paintings which adorn the abode of Krishna.
In the yearly celebrations, Pitchwai occupies a vital place. The decorations match the sentiments and the songs are also sung in accordance. All these expressions are depicted in the pitchwai paintings. Pitchwai paintings therefore aid in the overall décor of the Lord. 
The expressions and techniques of pitchwai
The main aim of the service method (seva) in the Vallabh Sampraday, is to show the different activities of Lord Krishna (lilas) and to re- enact these activities as though they were real. Through these activities, a devotee enjoys with his God.
          According to Pushti Marg, the devotees who surrender themselves totally in the service of the Lord are being protected by God Himself. The painters always try to show this emotion in his paintings and creation of pitchwai art. Every part of pitchwai Art is full of expression (bhav).
All the three aspects of Pushthi Marg are dominantly expressive. The singer keeps some particular expression in mind when he performs in the service of Lord Krishna. Emotions can be felt when Krishna is served meals and whatever is offered to the Lord is taken by all devotees as “bhog”.An artist too, in his creations, tries to depict some heartfelt felt expression of God. It is the combined effort of all these which enable the devotees to sense the proximity to the Lord. The devotees involve themselves as (sakhi) female friend of Lord Krishna. Lord Krishna is the manifestation of 64 arts. He is the greatest musician, the creator of the world. The devotees of Lord Krishna make ardent efforts to attract the Lord with all those activities which are performed by the Lord Himself. These include all parts of service (seva).
The technique of preparing pitchwani
Pitchwai making is accomplished in many stages. Pitchwai is made on cloth. So fabric is the essential component, together with colors and brushes. Making of Pitchwai is completed in the following steps.
Stitching Work - 100% cotton fabric is the best for making pitchwai paintings. Fabric is stitched on both sides so that a wooden or iron pipe can be placed in it. This work is known as kholi stitching. If an enormous pitchwai painting is to be made, there is need to join two separate fabrics. The sides of the cloth are placed in such a manner that about half an inch of each part remains over the side of the other part. Now fine stitching is done in the center. After stitching, both parts are pasted with ‘lai’,(a  kind of traditional adhesive made from wheat powder cooked in water till it arrives a consistency, a little thicker than the present day adhesives) and thus the pitchwai cloth is prepared.
Kadap (starch) or coating the pitchwai - For the starch, neela thotha or copper sulphate is mixed with maida or fine wheat powder and a fine paste is prepared. Some artists prepare lai with wheat powder called atta which is strong and durable. Both top and bottom of the fabric are fixed with bamboo and hanged. Lai is applied on the fabric with the help of a small rag cloth. Weight is placed on the lower side on the iron rod to avoid creasing on the cloth. In another process the cloth is held tightly on all the four sides and then lai is applied with a small rag cloth. Once the coating is applied it is allowed to dry properly.
Starting the outline work - Center of fabric is marked. Now one inch border is left on all four sides for ornamentation. To do this cotton thread is dipped in geru or saffron color and stretched over the cloth and light marks drawn on to the fabric. This process is also known as soot-jhadna or marking with thread. This work is done on the upper side of the cloth where starch is put. Now outline work is started. The twig of (imli) tamarind is burned to derive coal stick. All outline work is done with this coal stick. After the outline work the cloth is jerked off in order to clear all unnecessary carbon from the fabric. Then the outline of the final drawing is done with geru colour. This is also known as ‘kacchi likhai’ or rough drawing.
Preparing the color – As the first step of preparing color, solid and natural colors are grinded on stones. Some colors are grinded dry and some wet. Before using them, these colors are sieved with a fine fabric. In pichwai painting gold and silver colors are used extensively. These colors are prepared by the artists themselves. This technique of preparing silver and gold colors is known as hal of gold and silver. Gum of dhawda is mixed to prepare colors.
Filling up the color - Color is filled in the outline on fabric. For these brush is made in which hair on the neck of goat, squirrel or horse is used. When all areas are filled with colors, then ghutai of pitchwai is undertaken. In ghutai or grinding work, an oval shaped wood is used on which hakeek stone is fixed. For grinding, the pitchwai is spread evenly on the floor. Wooden ghota is then placed on the back side of pitchwai and grinding is done. Through this process, the surface of painting brightens up. When this process is complete, the lining work is taken up on pitchwai. Face, nose, lips etc. are drawn with dark lines. This is called Pakki Likhai. In pitchwai painting, this line drawing work is of utmost importance. The specialized skill of the artist in line drawing can be visualized. After the outline drawing, the artist embarks on the work of pardaj. In this, shades to forms are given. The painting gives an effect of light and shade. Then, with a very fine brush, the work of making face, nose and mouth is done which is known as likhai (drawing) or ekharika. In the end wark chapna or pasting of gold and silver leaf is done. At last, to make the gold and silver work brighter, opni (special instrument) is used for opai (to make colors bright) work.
In this way, the process of pitchwai making is completed. It takes 15 -20 days or even a little more to make one pitchwai.16
Conservation of painting by the Pithadeeshwars
The pithadheesh or the chief priests of the (pradhan peeth) main temple, have played an important role, in the development of this unique art of Vallabhasampradaya. The way in which different art styles developed in the small and big states of Rajasthan due to the protection given by their respective rulers, in the same way, in Nathdwara also, due to the conservation and strict supervision and control of the priests, this art style has acquired its own identity, not only in Rajasthan but also in the other states of India and in many foreign lands
Here, it was essential for the artists to draw each and every small or big object according to the set pattern which was already laid down.17 To make any change in the making of the picture of Srinathji, permission from the chief priests or tilkayats was compulsory.18 It has been a tradition to appoint a chief artist for the supervision of all kind of artistic activities in the temple. The frescoes of the temple-palace are renovated every year by some expert artists during dashhera and deepawali under the supervision of the tilkayat himself.19 Apart from the social and political situations of the country, the personal life of the chief priests and their interest in art, has directly influenced the Nathdwara style of painting from time to time.
We do not know much about the Pushtimargiya art activities of its initial times. The art activities started in this sect during the period of Gopinathji (1517-1534), the eldest son of Shri Vallabhacharya. He encouraged the chitra seva (service through paintings).20 During his period chitra seva was started as a regular duty (seva).
Vitthalnathji (1516-1586) became Tilkayat or chief priest after the untimely demise of Gopinathji who was himself a good artist and art lover. One of his paintings depicting the infantile Lord Krishna is still preserved in the Kandivali temple at Mumbai.21 After Vitthalnathji’s demise, the period in which Purushottamji (1532-1550), Girdharji (1541-1621), Damodarji (1576-1638), Vitthaleshraiji (1601-1656) Lal Girdharji (1633-1667) and Damodarji (Bade Daoji) (1655-1704) held the charge of the head tilkayat, there was no such development in the field of art. Damodarji (Bade Daoji) brought Shrinathji to Mewar from Brija and re-established the idol permanently in Sinhaad village near Udaipur.
The artists have been painting the frescoes which are symbolic to the main darshan of the lord, on the walls of the Haveli of Shri Nathji, in accordance to the main philosophy of the sampradaya, from the initial time of the construction of the temple. It is believed that some artists of the Adi Gaur cast came to Nathdwara along with Shrinathji and started the painting work here. Gradually the artists from the Jangids and Mewaras society also came in search of job and settled here only.22 Tilakayat Govardhaneshji (1707-1763) was born in Nathdwara. A painted pitchwai was displayed at the back of Shrinathji during his padagrahan (office taking) festival of Govardhaneshji. In that pitchwai Lord Shri Krishna and Balrama were shown taking their cattle to the field for grazing. It was for the first time that a painted pichwai was displayed at the back of Shrinathji.23 After this, it became a tradition of painting pichwais not only in Nathdwara but also in other temples of the sect. New dimensions were added to the Painting style of the Sampradaya, by various artists, under the able guidance of Tilakayat Govardhaneshji.24 After Govardhanesh ji, Govind ji (1713-1776) and Bade Girdhar ji (1769-1807) became Tilakayats. They maintained the tradition started by Govardhanesh ji and also supplemented other techniques and emotional feelings (bhav rupas) to it. In this tradition, the contributions of Damodarji (1797-1826) who was popularly known as “Dauji”, are remarkable. During his time, a new era began as far as the development and wealth of Nathdwara was concerned. Many pitchwais were painted during “Dauji’s” tenure and these were placed in the seva (service). Many of the paintings of that era can still be seen in the seva.25
After Damodar ji, Govind lal ji (1821-1846) and after him Girdharji (1843-1900) became Tilakayat and they without any significant change continued the tradition of painting work. During this time many expert artists came to Nathdwara and among them the very prominent artist was Seelakh cast Shri Ramchandra “Baba”. Other artists like Hardevji and Omkarji were also of great importantance and contributed a lot to the development of art work at Nathdwara.26 Govardhanlalji (1863-1934) became Tilakayat and his period is considered to be the Golden period of Nathdwara art styles. On his birthday, a painted pitchwai was presented to Shrinathji in which many Goswami family members were painted as Braja Bhakta (devotees) in Sakhi Bhava. Deep attachment and interest of the Tilakayat in art was clearly visible by this incident.27 During this period, artist Veniram, son of the Shri Nanalal and artist Narayanji remained prominent. Other artists of that period were Ghasiramji son of Hardevji, Sukhdevji, Devilalji, Eklingji, Matthulalji are worth appreciating. During Govardhanji’s period, Nathdwara’s art style was at its zenith. That time Ghasiramji was the chief artist. In his workshop many great artists were trained to perfection. Even today the pitchwai prepared by Ghasiramji is displayed behind Shrinathji, on the occasion of Thakurani Teej. A great number of artists and disciples gather to see that pitchwai.
During the period of Tilkayat Govardhan lal ji, many rules and regulations relating to art were incorporated. The art of the sect was at its pinnacle at this time. During his tenure, the most talented artists were honored for their art work with special gifts and cash prizes. He used to honor the artists coming from outside in a traditional manner, by presenting them “turban” decorated by gold jari, gold bangle, uparna or shoulder cloth and paan ka beeda.28 He made many changes in the creation of the form (swaroopa). The face (Mukharbind) of Shrinathji began to be drawn a little longer than earlier. The open foot (charnarbind) is now in frontal position which now looks more natural.
Damodar lal ji (1897-1936) inherited the seat from his father, Govardhan lal ji. He also gave protection to the artists similar to that of his ancestors. He presented different types of pitchwai of diverse bhavas during different festivals. The Tilakayat family members were depicted in the pitchwais during his era, which was a great experiment. The Vaishnav disciples and followers also followed the same style of pitchwai-making. Due to this, many artists got opportunity to work in plenty.  Heeralalji, Ambaramji, Shankarlalji, Narottam narayanji, Damodarlalji, Nandalalji, Kaluji and Jaggannathji were the main artists of this period.
After Damodarji, Govindlalji (1928-1995) became Tilakayat. He was scripted off his ruling power and the financial condition also worsened.29 It affected the art field adversely. Inspite of this he initiated many developmental works in the field of art.30 The artists were in search of possibilities in the field of portrait drawing, calendar drawings and scenery paintings. Govindlalji, Dwarkalalji, Narottamnarayanji, Ghanshyamji, Bhooralalji, Vitthalji, Ghanshyamji (Master Sahab), Chimanlalji, B.G. Sharma, Inder Sharma, Nainsukhji, Tulsidasji, Rewashankarji and other artists initiated new experiments and continued the traditional painting style of pitchwai painting.
Dauji (Rajeevji)(1949-2000) became the next Tilakayat. He also was an art lover. Due to the improvement in the transportation facilities in Nathdwara, the number of Vaishnav Bhaktas (devotees) has increased in recent years.Tourists from India and abroad also started coming here. Many art merchants opened up art shops in in Nathdwara market. But the ratio of pitchwai painting has decreased. The interference of the tilkayats also has come down. The influence of this great style of Rajasthan is gradually lowering down. In the nearby cities copies of Nathdwara paintings are being sold at a very cheap rate, in the name of Nathdwara paintings which has affected the Nathdwara artists.
Rakeshji (Indradamanji) (1950) became tilkayat in 2001. Presently the conservation by the tilkayats is absent especially in pitchwai painting.
The style which was once the pride of province is presently loosing its past glory; many artists now have started making handicraft items leaving their traditional art. Art of pitchwai painting is dying. Few artists like Ghanshyamji Gagoria, Raghunandanji, Kanhaiyalalji, Amritlalji, Parmanandji, Vishnuji, Kanhaiya lal ji are doing their level best to keep the style alive.
Lyons, Tryna, The Artists of Nathdwara, Mapin Publication, New York, p 29
A Book Review: “Krishna as Shrinathji: Rajasthani Paintings from nathdwara” by Amit Ambalal, for Journal of the American Academy of Religion, June, 1988
Mewar Encyclopedia, Eternal Marwar
Blessings of the net-travel. Nathdwara Guide
Paliwal, Hemant, rajsamand Times, Shrinathji Temple Nathdwara, January 2, 2011
Singh, Sanjay, Yatra 2 Yatra, Abe Books, Amazon, Page 183-186
Harishchandra, Bharatendu Babu, presented by Girishchandra, Heerak Jayanti Grantha, Sahitya Mandal, Nathdwara, 1997, p 35
Jhari, Dr. Krishnadev,Ashtachap and Parmananda, Sharda Prakashan, New Delhi, 1976, p 25
Harishchandra, Bharatendu Babu, presented by Girishchandra, Heerak Jayanti Grantha, Sahitya Mandal, Nathdwara, 1997, p 37
Jhari, Dr. Krishnadev,Ashtachap and Parmananda, Sharda Prakashan, New Delhi, 1976, p 27
Pratap, Dr. Rita, Bharatiya Chitrakala evam Murtikala Ka Itihas, Rajasthan Hindi Granth Academy,
Jaipur, 2007, p 190
Wikipedia – the free encyclopedia, Shrinathji
Panchajanya, 1 April, 1984
Gurjar, Fatehlal ‘anokha’, Heerak Jayanti Grantha, Sahitya Mandal, Nathdwara, 1997, p 218
Pratap, Dr. Rita, Bharatiya Chitrakala evam Murtikala Ka Itihas, Rajasthan Hindi Granth Academy,
Jaipur, 2007, p 189
Tod, Col. James, Cultural History of Rajasthan, First Part, Delhi 1829, p 145
Ananda Coomarswami, A. K., Catalogue of Indian Collections, Part V, p 4
V arma, Dr. Avinash, Bharatiya Chitrakala ka Itihas, Prakash Book Depot, Bareli, 1992, p 189
Shreeji Darshan, Nathdwara Mandir Mandal, Nathdwara, p 15
Jhari, Dr. Krishnadev,Ashtachap and Parmananda, Sharda Prakashan, New Delhi, 1976, p
Shri Harirai, Shrinathji ki Prakatya Varta, Vidya Vibhag, Mandhir Mandal, Nathdwara, Samvat 2008, p 19
Information obtained from artist Ghanshyam Gagoria and Parmanand, Chief Artist,
Mehta, Dr. Subhas, Vallabh Sampradai  Chitrakala ke Vikas Me Tilkayat wa Acharyaon ki Bhomika, Heerak Jayanti Grantha, Sahitya Mandal, Nathdwara, 1997, p 458
Ambalal, Amit, Krishna as Shrinathji, Mapin Publication, New York, 1987, p 63
List of the chief artists [ mukhiya chitrakar ], of Nathdwara- 1. Chatura [Adi Gaur, Jhamoriya Clan], 2. Chiman [Adi Gaur], 3. Chotu [Adi Gaur], 4. Jagannath [Adi Gaur], 5. Nathu [Adi Gaur], 6. Sukhdev [Adi Gaur, Kakosia], 7. Ghasiram [Jangir], 8. Devkishan [Jangid], 9. Bhagwandas/ Nathu [Adi Gaur], 10. Heeralal [Adi Gaur], 11. Jamnadas, [Adi Gaur], 12. Tulsidas, [Adi Gaur], 13. Parmanand, [Adi Gaur],
a.] Ambalal, Amit, Srinathji Swarop Chitran ka Vikas Kram, Heerak Jayanti Grantha, Sahitya Mandal, Nathdwara, 1997, p 465b.] Vaishnav Parivar, [ Patrika], August 1984, p 20
          21. Vashisth, Dr. R. K., Mewar ki Chitrankan Parampara, Unique Traders, Jaipur, 1984, p 8-15
22. Lyons, Tryna, Women Artists of Nathdwara School, Representing the Body, Gender Issue in India,                edited by Vidya Dahiya, Paul’s Press, New Delhi, 1997, p 102
          23. Sharma, B., Srinath Seva Rasodadhi, Mumbai, Rukminibai V. Karni, 1981, p 201
          24. Mehta, Dr. Subhas, Gagananchal, October-December Issue, 2008, p 64
          25. Sharma, B., Srinath Seva Rasodadhi, Mumbai, Rukminibai V. Karni, 1981, p 364
                26. Vashisth, Dr. R. K., Mewar ki Chitrankan Parampara, Unique Traders, Jaipur, 1984, p 31
27. Ambalal, Amit, Srinathji Swarop Chitran ka Vikas Kram, Heerak Jayanti Grantha, Sahitya Mandal, Nathdwara,  1997, p 467
28. Mehta, Dr. Subhas, Vallabh Sampradai  Chitrakala ke Vikas Me Tilkayat wa Acharyaon ki Bhomika, Heerak Jayanti Grantha, Sahitya Mandal, Nathdwara, 1997, p 465
29.  Ambalal, Amit, Krishna as Shrinathji, Mapin Publication, New York, 1987, p 73
21. Shri Harirai, Shrinathji ki Prakatya Varta, Vidya Vibhag, Mandhir Mandal, Nathdwara, Samvat 2008, p XIII
Biographical Statement:
About the Author
Dr. Bijoy Kumar Dutta is Director, Institute of Visual Art, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. He was Professor of Visual Arts at the IIS University Jaipur, India and Assistant Professor, College of Arts and Social Science, Eritrea, North East Africa.
 He received his doctorate in Visual Arts from the MS University, Udaipur, India.
He has published Art and Artists of a Sacred Town and The Vallabha Sampradaya and Pichwai Paintings of Nathdwara.
His research interest includes Art Education and Traditional Art of India.